When the second list of the top500 supercomputers was presented at the 1993 Supercomputing Conference, it featured a new No. 1 system: the Numerical Wind Tunnel at the National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan. The Numerical Wind Tunnel was an early implementation of the vector parallel architecture developed in a joint project between the National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan and Fujitsu. The first deployment featured 140 vector processors and achieved 124.2 gigaflop/s performance running the Linpack benchmark.
The system lost the No. 1 spot in June 1994, but with an upgrade to 167 processors, the Numerical Wind Tunnel reclaimed the top spot with a Linpack performance of 170 gigaflop/s and remained atop the list until December 1995.It was the first supercomputer with a sustained performance of close to 100 Gflop/s for a wide range of fluid dynamics application programs. The system’s vector processors featured a gate delay of as low as 60 ps in the Ga-As chips.
The resulting cycle time was 9.5 ns. The processor had four independent pipelines each capable of executing two Multiply-Add instructions in parallel resulting in a peak speed of 1.7 Gflop/s per processor. Each processor board was equipped with 256 Megabytes of central memory.
|1||Titan - Cray XK7 , Opteron 6274 16C 2.200GHz, Cray Gemini interconnect, NVIDIA K20x|
|2||Sequoia - BlueGene/Q, Power BQC 16C 1.60 GHz, Custom|
|3||K computer, SPARC64 VIIIfx 2.0GHz, Tofu interconnect|
|4||Mira - BlueGene/Q, Power BQC 16C 1.60GHz, Custom|
|5||JUQUEEN - BlueGene/Q, Power BQC 16C 1.600GHz, Custom Interconnect|
|6||SuperMUC - iDataPlex DX360M4, Xeon E5-2680 8C 2.70GHz, Infiniband FDR|
|7||Stampede - PowerEdge C8220, Xeon E5-2680 8C 2.700GHz, Infiniband FDR, Intel Xeon Phi|
|8||Tianhe-1A - NUDT YH MPP, Xeon X5670 6C 2.93 GHz, NVIDIA 2050|
|9||Fermi - BlueGene/Q, Power BQC 16C 1.60GHz, Custom|
|10||DARPA Trial Subset - Power 775, POWER7 8C 3.836GHz, Custom Interconnect|